Beck, Charles (trans).  A Treatise on Gymnastics, taken chiefly from the German of F.L. Jahn. Northampton, Massachuetts:  Simeon Butler, 1828.

Hofman, Annette R.  "From Jahn to Lincoln:  Transformation of Turner Symbols in a New Cultural Setting."  The International Journal of the History of Sport.  26.13 (2009):  1946-1962.

---.  Lady Turners in the United States: German American Identity, Gender Concerns, and TurnersJournal of Sport History 27.3 (Fall 2000):  383-404.

Hofman, Annette R. (ed).  Turnen and Sport:  Transatlantic Transfers.  Münster, Germany and New York, NY: Waxmann Publishing, 2004.

----.  Turnen and Sport:  Transatlantic Transfers. Münster,Germany and New York, NY: Waxmann Publishing, 2004.

Howard, Charles Hopkins.  History of the Y.M.C.A. in North America.  New York, Association Press, 1951. 

Kirsner, Gary. The Mettlach Book. 4th ed. with German translation. Coral Springs, FL: Glentiques, Ltd., 2005.

Kirsner, Gary and Gruhl, Jim. The Beer Stein Book: a 400 Year History. Coral Springs, FL: Glentiques, Ltd. 1990.

Manusov, Eugene and Wald, Mike. Character Steins: A Collector’s Guide. Toronto and New York: Cornwall Books, 1987.

Schwendener, Norma.  A History of Physical Education in the United States. New York:  A.S. Barnes & Company, 1942. 

Zettl, Herbert. “Physical education at Springfield College: its ‘historical and philosophical origins of Gulick’s Triangle.’” Presentation at the New England Historical Association; Franklin Pierce University, Fall 2014.  (Prof. Zettl is Associate Professor of History at Springfield College.)